SFC 清水唯一朗研究室

SFC 清水唯一朗研究室

Profile in English

Profile in English

Welcome to my website, Japanese Politics and History. It is YUICHIRO SHIMIZU’s profile.

Bio

Yuichiro Shimizu is Professor of Japanese Politics and History in the Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University, Japan.

His research and teaching focus on Japanese political history. His recent book, The Origins of the Modern Japanese Bureaucracy(London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2019), describes the process of nation building in Meiji and Taisho Japan from the view point of making and enhancing national elite. He point out the open door policy of bureaucracy as the route of making Japanese democracy.

He has been interested in the Relationship between Politicians and Bureaucrats. His first book, Party and the Bureaucracy in Modern Japan: the Clash of the Constitutional Government (Tokyo: Fujiwara Shoten, 2007) (in Japanese), he discussed about this issue, and pointed out they found the way of collaboration and separation after the long conflict.

His research is not only historical one, but also comparing Modern and Contemporary Japan. Because Japan has been faced on historical change in Politic, but there is not any experience about Government change more than a half century. Thus he experience in Modern Japan is the latest case to be referred. So he compiles a lot of Oral Histories to Politicians and Bureaucrats in Japan.

Education

LL.B. Keio University, Japan, 1999
LL.M. Keio University, Japan, 2001
S.J.D. Keio University, Japan, 2005

CURRENT POSITIONS

2017-present Professor, Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University.
2017-present Professor, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University.
2017-present Chairperson of the Editorial Board of KEIO SFC JOURNAL.
2016-present Board Member, Committee for Higher Civil-Service Exam, National Personnel Authority Japan.
2009-present Senior Fellow, Keio Global Research Institute, Keio University.
2007-present Visiting Fellow, Research Center of Advanced Technology, The University of Tokyo.

PREVIOUS POSITIONS

2018-2018 Visiting Professor, Department of Japanese History, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Germany.
2015-2016 Visiting Associate Professor, Program in Japanese Studeies, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
2014-2015 Visiting Scholar, Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, Harvard University, USA.
2010-2017 Associate Professor, Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University.
2010-2017 Associate Professor, Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University.
2003-2007 Research Associate, The University of Tokyo.
2002-2003 Research Assistant, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.

EDUCATION

Winter 2005 Ph.D. Graduate School of Law, Major in Politics, Keio University
Doctoral Dissertation: “A Study on Relationship among Party, Cabinet, and Bureaucrats in Modern Japan.”
Spring 2001 M.A. Graduate School of Law, Major in Politics, Keio University
Spring1999 B.A. School of Law, Major in Politics, Keio University.

AWARDS AND HONORS

May 14, 2016 Japanese Association of Electoral Studies Award.
“How Japanese electoral districts had established?”
June 7, 2014 Public Policy Studies Association Japan Award.
“The Bureaucrats in Modern Japan” Chuokoron Shinsha, 2013
June 10, 2011 The 27th Masayoshi Ohira Memorial Special Award.
Participated as a co-author in “Beyond Historical Awareness: 20-21st Century Japan-China Relations,” Chikura Shobo, 2010.
November, 1999 The Outstanding Paper Award of the100th Memorial for the Faculty of Law and Politics, Keio University
“A Study of Kiyoura Cabinet: Political Conflict in the House of Peers”

RESEARCH AND TEACHING INTERESTS

Japanese Political History, Bureaucracy, Political Awareness, Public Administration, Comparative Politics, Oral History

ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIPS

Japanese Political Science Association, Public Policy Studies Association, Japanese Association of Electoral Studies, European Association of Japanese Studies, Association for Asian Studies, Japanese Society for Public Administration, Japanese Association of Law and Political Science, Keio Law Association

CONTACT
Profile in Japanese

PUBLICATIONS AND CONFERENCE PAPERS

2020
Books
1. Shimizu Y. Takii K. Ryota M. An Introduction to a Political History of Modern Japan, Tokyo: Yuhikaku Publishing Co. Ltd, 2020(in Japanese).
2. “Japanese Bureaucrats and the First World War”, Jan Schmidt/ Katja Schmidtpott ed., The East Asian Dimension of the First World War, Frankfurt: Campus, 2020(in English).

2019
Books
1. Shimizu Y. The Origins of Modern Japanese Bureaucracy. London: Bloomsbury Publishing; 2019(in English) pp. 288.
2. Shimizu Y. et al.,The mystery behind Japan’s 1000 years history. Taipei: Walkers cultural 2019(in Chinese).
3. “Historical institutional analysis of Japanese electoral districts “, Endo K. et al. ed., Changes and refactoring in Japanese Studies, Taipei: Haulu Publishing, 2019(in Chinese).
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. “The Multi-Historiography of Japanese Studies: From an Era of Self-Reliance towards an Era of Collaboration”, ISSUES & STUDIES, vol.48 No. 4, 2019(in Japanese).
2. Shimizu Y. Nation, Party, Peoples: A political history of the balance-losing triangle “, Asteion, vol. 90, 2019(in Japanese).
3. Shimizu Y. “Representative in Japan: Its historical process and issues”, Hōritsu Jihō, vol. 1135, 2019(in Japanese).
Conferences
1. “Development politics and democracy in modern Japan”, The 4th Annual Conference of EACJS, Taipei(Taiwan), Nov 2019(in Japanese).
2. “Japanese Politics in the 150 years anniversary of Meiji Revolution”, A New Horizon in East Asian Humanities and Social Studies, Taipei(Taiwan), Oct 2019(in Japanese).
3. “Historical studies in Japanese Association of Electoral Studies”, Japanese Association of Electoral Studies Annual Conference, Tohoku University , July 2019(in Japanese).
4. “Meiji Revolution and its human resource policy”,Từ di sản Minh Trị Duy tân đến bài học đổi mới cho Việt Nam, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. March 8 2019(in Japanese).
5. “Prewar Political Elites, Postwar Democracy in Japan”, The open forum of “The historical origin of dictatorship and democracy in Asia”, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan, Jan 12 2019(in Japanese).

2018
Books
1. “Japanese youth have not been intested in politics?: Comparing political participation between Japan and Taiwan”, Who Governs?, Taipei:RiveGauche Publishing House, 2018(in Chinese) .
2. “Modern Japan”, Chūkō Shinsho Henshūbu ed., The Issues of Japanese History, Tokyo: Chūǒ Kōron Shinsha, 2018(in Japanese).
3. “Politicay juventud en Japon: cambios despues del gran desastre del Terremoto de Japon Oriental de2011”, G.N.M.Martinez, G.R.Altamirano ed., Educacion Civica, Tirant Humanidades, Mexico, 2018(in Spanish) .
4. Living as the Guardian of the law: A Memoir of Masasuke Ōmori: the President of Cabinet Legislation Bureau, Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2018(in Japanese).
5. “Yamagata Aritomo”, Kiyotada Tsutsui ed., Lecture of Meiji History: the Book of Personal History, Tokyo: Chikuma Shobǒ, 2018(in Japanese).
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. “What’s “full-fledged” cabinet?: Reconsidering party politics in Japan”, Chūō Kōron, vol. 1619, 2018(in Japanese)
2. Shimizu Y. “Representativeness and Expertise: 150 years history of Politico-Bureaucrats Relationship”, Journalism, no. 337, 2018(in Japanese).
3. “Restoration, Revolution or Reform? The Unexpected Fortune of Winners and Tenacious Efforts of Losers”, Discuss Japan No. 43. 2018 (in English).
Conferences
1. “Meiji Restoration and the 3.11 Great Earthquake: Youths and Two Major Human Resource Revolutions in Japan”, 150 Year Anniversary of the Meiji Restoration Lecture、Heidelberg University,Heidelberg, Germany, Nov 21 2018(in English)
2. “A historical Institutional Analysis about the first full-flidged party cabinet in Japan”, Japanese Political Science Association Annual Conference, Kansai Universiy, Japan, Oct 12 2018(in Japanese).
3. “Meiji Revolution as the Human Policies Revolution”, International Conference “Meiji Restoration and Modern World”, Nankai University, Tianjin, China, July 28, 2018(in Japanese).
4. “Not Restoration, Bu Revolution: 150 Years Changes in Youth”, JAPAN IN THE GLOBAL 21ST CENTURY、Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey, June 23, 2018(in English).
5. “Oral History Research in Policy Studies”, Japanese Association of Electoral Studies Annual Conference, Takushoku University, Tokyo, Japan, May 13 2018(in Japanese).
6. “Bureaucrats and Politicians in Japan: Conflict and Collaboration from 1868 to 2018”, The World History Seminar Series by the MIT History Faculty, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA, May 3, 2018(in English).

2017
Books
1. Shimizu Y. Mobilize our people!: Birth of a National Policy Pictorial Magazine,Shashin Shyuhō, Tamai K ed., The era of Shashin Shuhō, Tokyo: Keio University Press, 2017(in Japanese).
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Establishing Political Leadership in Japan?: The 2nd/3rd Abe Government and Its Leadership, Japan and Asia-Pacific Studies Quarterly, vol. 1 no. 3, 2017(Taiwan, in Japanese).
Conferences
1. “Cultivating Potential Hopes, Mobilizing Prospects Youth: Nation Building and Human Resources Policy in Modern Japan”, EVF Roundtable: Historical and Contemporary Impact of Generational Change on Japanese Politics and Institutions, at Freedom university Berlin, November 29, 2017(in English).
2. “Political Leadership and Prime Minister’s Office in the 2nd/3rd Abe Government” at Chinese Association For Japanese Studies, 2017, Beijing, China, October 30, 2017(in Japanese).
3. “Historical Analysis for Political Leadership and Prime Minister’s Office in Japan”, at 2nd International Conference of EACJS, 2017, Tianjin, China, October 29, 2017(in Japanese).
4. “The First World War, as The Turning Point of Modern Japan”, International Workshop “The Great War seen from the ‘Periphery’, East Asia and Ibero-America”, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 26, 2017(in English).
5. “Political Development and Post-War Governance: What’s Japanese Political Elites learned from WW1?”, at International conference “National Policy and Economic Development in Modern East Asia”, National Taipei University, New Taipei, Taiwan, June 16 2017(in Japanese).

2016
Books
1. Yamamoto T, Shimizu Y, Deguchi Y. Exploring Japan with the Judicial Precedents: Laws, Politics, History and Culture, Tokyo: Nihon Hyōronsha, 2016 (in Japanese).
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. “Politics and Youth in Modern and Contemporary Japan”, ISSUES & STUDIES, vol. 45 no. 2, 2016(Taiwan, in Japanese).
2. Shimizu Y. “How Electoral Districts System was Established in Modern Japan?: Exploring the Threshold of Special Political Institution”, Journal of Political Science, vol. 2016 no. 2, 2016(in Japanese).
3. Shimizu Y. “An Attempt for Developing Institutional Political History: Historical Institionalism with Four Political Institution”, Kyūshū Shigaku, no. 175, 2016(in Japanese).
Conferences
1. “How Japanese Electoral District Reform Has Done?“, Social Scientific dialogue in New Era between Taiwan and Japan, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, December 17 2016(in Japanese).
2. “Electoral districts as spatial and historical institutes”, at 1st International Conference of EACJS, National Seoul University, Inchon, Korea, November 30 2016(in Japanese).
3. “Politics and Youth in Modern Japan: Historical and Contemporary Views”, Retos de la política internacional de Japón en Asia-Pacífico, CIDOB, Barcelona, Spain, March 10 2016(in English).
4. “Evolución de la opinión pública japonesa en cuestiones de seguridad”, Seminario de Relaciones Internacionales y Seguridad de Japón, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, March 9 2016(in English).

2015
Books
1. Mikuriya T, Akasaka K, Shimizu Y. An Oral History of Masasuke Ōmori: the President of Cabinet Legislation Bureau, Tokyo: The University of Tokyo Oral History Project, 2015(in Japanese).
Conferences
1. “Politico-Bureaucrat-Nation Relationship in Contemporary Japan: Governmental Changes and Three Institutions”, at 2nd National Conference for Japanese Studies, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, November 13 2015(in Japanese).
2. “An Attempt for Developing Institutional Political History: Historical Institionalism with Four Political Institution”, at Kyushū Shigaku annual conference, Kyushū University, Japan, October 17 2015(in Japanese)
3. “Reformatting Elite in Modern Japan”, at Elites in Modern Japan International Workshop, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, EHESS, Paris, France, June 4 2015(in English).
4. “Building-up Process of the Japanese Electoral District System: Continuity and Discontinuity from Pre-Modern Order”, at Japanese Association of Electoral Studies Annual Conference, Kumamoto, Japan, May 17 2015(in Japanese)
5. “The Fostering of Young Elites in Modern Japan: Education, Institution, Promotion”, at Nissan Seminar, Nissan Institute of Japanese Studies, Oxford University, UK, January 29 2015(in English).

2014
Articles
1. Shimizu Y, Suwa M. Re-examining Oral History Method:Dialogue Analysis of Utterance Sequences. KEIO SFC JOURNAL. 2014;14 (1) :108-132(in Japanese).
2. Shimizu Y, Naraoka S. Shaping the Diet: Competing Architectural Designs for Japan’s Diet Building. [Internet]. 2014(in English).
3. Shimizu Y. The history and future of Nagano prefecture, as the region of education. In: Changing schools, Changing society. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Shoseki ; 2014(in Japanese).
Conferences
1. “The Formation and Evolution of the Bureaucracy in Modern Japan”, at Modern Japanese History Workshop 2014, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, October 18, 2014(in English).
2. “Shaping the Diet: Competing Architectural Designs for Japan’s Diet Building”(Joint paper with Sōchi Naraoka) , at Australian Political Studies Association, the University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, September 29, 2014(in English).
3. “Conflict, Collaboration and Confusion: Reexamining the Relationship between the Bureaucracy and Party Politics in Japan, 1868-1924”, at NYCAS(New York Conference Asian Studies), Hofstra University, New York, USA, September 20 2014(in English).
4. “How Japanese Bureaucrats studied the War: WW1 and Japanese bureaucrats”, at The East Asian Dimension of the First World War, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Bochum, Germany, September 7 2014(in English).
5. “From Local Youths to National Elites: Developing Human Resources in Modern Japan”, at ASPAC(Asian Studies on Pacific Ocean) 2014, Western Washington University, Bellingham , USA, June 21 2014(in English).

2013
Books
1. Shimizu Y. The Bureaucracy in Modern Japan: from Restoration Bureaucrats to Educated Elites. 1st ed. Tokyo: Chuo Koron Shinsha; 2013 pp. 356.
2. Shimizu, Y et al. ed. The Documents of Baron Shijyo Family. 1st ed. Tokyo: Doseisha; 2013 pp. 412.
3. Innami I, Shimizu Y ed. The Medical Policy in Japan: An Oral History of Eiichi Nakamura. Tokyo: Institute for Health Economics and Policy; 2013 pp. 168.
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. YOSHINO Sakuzō and Public Space in the Taisho Period. Bulletin of Modern Japanese Studies [Internet]. 2013;29 :61-104.
2. Shimizu Y. The Election System in Modern Japan; Succeeding Author’s Intuition and Consideration. Japanese Journal of Electoral Studies, Vol29-1, 2013.
3. Shimizu Y. Comparative Study of Chambers (1): The National Diet and the Chamber of Japan as physical framework for Democracy. Theory and Practice of New Japan Studies” Working Paper [Internet]. 2013.
4. Shimizu Y. Changing the Construction of the Party Support: A Case of the Partition of Rikken Seiyukai. In: Sakamoto K, Iokibe K The New Horizon of Japanese Political History. 1st ed. Tokyo: Yoshida Shoten ; 2013. pp. 233-276.
Conferences
1. “Civil Service Reform under the Governmental Changes”, at the International Conference “Future of Post Developing Era Japan”, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea, October 11 2013(in Japanese).

2012
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Problems Detected by Japanese Political History. In: Sone Y The Governance of Government and Parties under the Change of Government. Tokyo: The 21st Century Public Policy Institute ; 2012. pp. 74-100.
2. Kimura M, Shimizu Y ed. An Oral History of Masahide Shibusawa: Grandchild of Eiichi Shibusawa. Tokyo: The Eiichi Shibusawa Memorial Foundation; 2012 pp. 130.

2011
Books
1. Sakurai R, Kobayashi M, Shimizu Y ed. The Diary of the Marshal Uehara Yusaku. Tokyo: Fuyo Shobo Shuppan; 2011 pp. 503.
2. Mikuriya T, Makihara I, Shimizu Y ed. An Oral History of Ichiro Yoshikuni: the President of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau. Tokyo: The University of Tokyo Oral History Project; 2011.
3. Innami I, Shimizu Y ed. The Universal Healthcare System: An Oral History of Masataka Kouda. Tokyo: Institute for Health Economics and Policy; 2011 pp. 158.
4. Toshihiro O, Shimizu Y ed. Young Daughters of the Noble Family in the Era of Taisho and Showa. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan; 2011 pp. 225.
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Who Takes the Initiative? Is it Politician or Bureaucrat? The Historical Composition and Structural Changes. Leviathan. 2011;48 :8-37.
Conferences
1. “After Governmental Changes in Japan”, at Japan-Taiwan Conference “East Asia and USA”, Taipei, Taiwan, October 29 2011(in Japanese)
2. “From Conflict to Compromise: The Changing Relations of Party Politics and Ministerial Bureaucracy in Interwar Japan” at 13th International Conference of EAJS, 2011, Tallinn, Estonia, October 29, 2011.
3. “After the Change of Government: from the LDP regime to the DPJ Government” at Japan-Taiwan Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, March 1, 2011(in Japanese).
4. “Change of Government and Political Realignment: Structure Change by the 2nd Goken Movement” at the Japanese Association of Electoral Studies Annual Meeting, Nishinomiya, Japan, May 14 2011(in Japanese).
5. “Relationship between Parties and Bureaucrats: Factions and Politicalization” at the Association of KEIO Law and Politics Annual Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, June 12 2011(in Japanese).

2010
Books
1. Kimura M, Shimziu Y ed. An Oral History of Shigeyuki Hozumi: the Grandchild of Nobushige Hozumi. Tokyo: The Eiichi Shibusawa Memorial Foundation; 2010 pp. 88.
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Politics and Administration in the Era of Party Government. In: Kasahara H History of the Japanese Administration. Tokyo: Keio University Press ; 2010. pp. 55-78.
2. Shimizu Y. Reaction to the Chinese Revolution of 1911: Democratization and Modern Japan. In: Nakanishi H, Kobayashi M Beyond Historical Awareness: 20-21st Century Japan-China Relations. Tokyo: Chikura Shobo ; 2010. pp. 33-58.
Conferences
1. “A Historical Analysis of Political Leadership in Japan: Pre-war, Post-war and Now”, at The International Conference “Japanese Political Changes under DPJ Government”, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, September 19 2010(in Japanese).

2009
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. The Capability of Oral History. RPSPP Discussion Paper [Internet]. 2009;4 :1-27.
2. Shimizu Y. Recruiting National Elites and Building the Administrative State: A Mentality of Modern Japan. Hogaku Kenkyu. 2009;82-2 :193-219.
Conferences
1. “The Evolution of Parties and Bureaucrats Relationship: the Birth of Administrative State and Party Government” at The Japanese Society for Public Administration Annual Meeting, Hiroshima, Japan, May 9, 2009(in Japanese).

2008
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. The Institutionalization of Political Readership. In: Politics of Keio University: Japanese Politics. Tokyo: Keio University Press ; 2008. pp. 143-171.
2. Shimizu Y. Forming an District Association on Modern Japanese Bureaucracy: with a Case of Nagano Prefecture. In: Kamijo H The Various Issues of the Glass Roots History in Nagano Prefecture,. Nagano: Ryuho Shobo ; 2008. pp. 121-153.
3. Shimizu Y. The Overview of Shashin Shuho as an National Policy Pictorial Magazine. In: Tamai K The National Consciousness of Wartime Japan. Tokyo: Keio University Press ; 2008. pp. 1-48.
Conferences
1. “The General Election under the Political Realignment” at the Japanese Association of Election Studies Annual Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, May 17, 2008(in Japanese).

2007
Books
1. Shimizu Y. Party and the Bureaucracy in Modern Japan. 1st ed. Tokyo, Japan: Fujiwara Shoten; 2007 pp. 336.
2. Iio J, Ohsugi S, Shimizu Y ed. Life with Local Administration: An Oral History of the Assistance Administrator Hiroshi Miyazawa. Tokyo: Daiichi Hoki; 2007 pp. 249.
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Hara, Takashi. In: Mikuriya T Drawing the Prime Minister in the History. Tokyo: Yumani Shobo ; 2007. pp. 95-102.
2. Shimizu Y. How to Practice Oral History?. In: Mikuriya T The Approach to Oral History. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten ; 2007. pp. 121-125.
Conferences
1. “The Institutionalization of Political Readership” at the Japanese Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, October 6, 2007(in Japanese).

2006
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Parties and Bureaucrats under the Goken Sanpa Government. Nihon Seiji Kenkyu. 2006;3-1 :29-65.

2005
Books
1. Mikuriya T, Kanai T, Shimizu Y ed. An Oral History of Atsuo Kudo: the President of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau. Tokyo: National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies; 2005 pp. 419.
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Party and Bureaucracy in the Taisho Period: Bureaucrats Join Parties. In: Terasaki O, Tamai K Politics and Civil Consciousness during Prewar Japan. Tokyo: Keio University Press ; 2005. pp. 145-192.
2. Shimizu Y. The Formation of the First Party Cabinet, 1898-1901: Changing the Relationship between the Politico-Bureaucracy and the Cabinet. Shigaku Zasshi. 2005;114-2 :59-83.
Conferneces
1. “Parties and Bureaucrats under the Goken Sanpa Government” at the Association of Japanese Political Studies Annual Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, may 22, 2005(in Japanese).

2004
Books
1. Mikuriya T, Takeda T, Yuichiro S ed. An Oral History of Masae Ohmuro: the Party Secretary General of the LDP. Tokyo: National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies; 2004 pp. 479.
2.Iio J, Ohsugi S, Shimizu Y ed. My Twentieth Century: An Oral History of the Assistance Administrator Shiro Nagano. Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo; 2004 pp. 292.
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. A Study of Partilization of Bureaucrat in Modern Japan. The Japanese Journal of Law and Political Science [Internet]. 2004;41-4 :67-77.
2. Shimizu Y. Spoils System under the Waihan Government: Party Politician, Bureaucrats, and Spoils of Office. Nihon Rekishi. 2004;674 :52-70.
Conferences
1. “A Study of Partilization of Bureaucrat in Modern Japan” at The Japanese Association of Law and Political Science Annual Meeting, Osaka, Japan, June 19, 2004(in Japanese).

2003
Articles
1. Shimizu Y. Oral History in Japan. Keio-GSEC CRONOS Working Papers [Internet]. 2003;3-4 :1-11.
2. Shimizu Y. From Spoils System to Merit System: Reform of the Bureaucracy in Japan, 1867-1893. Journal of Law and Political Studies. 2003;59 :39-67.
3. Shimizu Y. The General Election under the Waihan Government: Hard Cordination of Candidates in Coalition. Japanese Journal of Electoral Studies [Internet]. 2003;18 :101-112.