#author("2018-06-24T20:19:03+09:00","","")
[[Wiki Schedule]]
*Manchester Computers [#rc12527e]
#ref(Manchester.jpg,center)
((Image Source: http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/digital-logic/12/273/1371))

#ref(summary_manchester.png,center)

**Background [#z32e8d22]
- The Manchester Computers were the series of stored-program (von Neumann architecture)  electronic computers. It was developed during 1947 - 1977 by a small team at the University of Manchester, lead by Tom Kilburn.
- Two goals of the project:
-- 1. Prove practicality of the Williams Tube (early form of random access memory using cathode ray tubes)
-- 2. Construct a machine that can assist in solving math problems 

**Manchester Baby [#g9d75bcb]
- The first testing prototype of the Manchester computer using Williams tube.
- CRT used the behavior of electrons to light up the phosphor on its tube surface. Since the electrons are essentially inertia-free, it allowed the beam to be moved anywhere on the screen and thus make memory to be randomly accessible.

**Transistor Computer [#k363a186]
- Richard Grimsdale and D.C. Webb were assigned to design and build a machine using newly developed transistors. 
- The first operational transistor computer was completed in November, 1953.
- The second version made use of solid state diodes, taking advantage of the semiconductor's behavior. Yet since they still used the drum memory, it was not the completely transistorized computer.

**Muse and Atlas [#l189ceeb]
- Aimed to build a computer that could operate at processing speeds approaching one microsecond per instruction, or 1 million in structions per second
- Muse was later renamed Atlas. It was consdiered at that time the most powerful computer It was said the it was in charge of half of UK's computer capacity.
- The machine used virtual storage (virtual memory) and paging -> considered by many to be the first recognisable modern OS

**MU5 [#rabbaac3]
- Designed and optimized for running compiled programs
- Used associative memory to perform faster than Atlas






----
Sources:
+ [[The Transistor Computer:http://curation.cs.manchester.ac.uk/digital60/www.digital60.org/birth/manchestercomputers/transistorcomputer/index.html]]
+ [[A Short History of Computers:http://www.bbc.co.uk/manchester/content/articles/2008/06/17/210608_computer_timeline_feature.shtml]]
+ [[Manchester Computer:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_computers]]
+ [[Williams Tube:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williams_tube]]



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