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*Dorothy Vaughan [#y64d9a04]
&ref(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/youngdorothyvaughan.jpeg,80x140);&ref(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Dorothy_Vaughan.jpg,80x140);
~(left)National Aeronautics and Space Administration
~(right)Wikipedia Dorothy Vaughan

"A respected mathematician and NASA's first African-American manager"


**Biography [#s2164bb8]
~born in Kansas City, Missouri on September 20, 1910
~earn B.A. in mathematics from Wilberforce University, Ohio in 1929
~worked a math teacher at Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville until 1943
~began work for NACA(National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, in 1943
~became the first black supervisor at NACA in 1949
~died in Hampton, Virginia on November 10, 2008

**Works [#hfd2da38]
prepared to  machine computers and contributed for the success of several projects at NACA and NASA, such as Project Mercury and Scout Launch Vehicle Program
*** IBM 7090  [#n45aa8d5]
~a science and technology use mainframe one generation prior to the [[System/360:http://web.sfc.keio.ac.jp/~rdv/computer-architecture-2019-wiki/index.php?S/360]]
~a system consisting of multiple units such as a card reader and a tape unit in addition to the CPU
#ref(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/IBM_7090_computer.jpg, 360x270)
~Wikipedia IBM 7090
~I/O tape, punch cards and printers can be connected
~Project Gemini and Project Mercury, and transition for Apollo program

***  FORTRAN(FORmula TRANslation) [#l5b8062b]
~the first high-level programming language
~imperative programming language especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing
~developed by John Backus and IBM in the 1950s 
~the basis for other programming languages such as BASIC
#ref(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/FortranCardPROJ039.agr.jpg,480x240)
Wikipedia Fortran
~パンチカードに記されたFORTRANのコード。カラム1~5、6、73~80が制御用に確保されている。




**Historical Background [#na8f6700]
~Jim Crow laws were enacted in the late 19th and 20th centuries. 
~Executive Order 8802 was an order to prohibit racial, religious and ethnic discrimination in the country's defense industry.
~NACA was transitioned into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. 
**References [#y78680b9]
~National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dorothy Vaughan Biography. https://www.nasa.gov/content/dorothy-vaughan-biography
~Wikipedia Dorothy Vaughan. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Vaughan
~IBM Systems Japan Blog ドロシー・ヴォーン. https://www.ibm.com/blogs/systems/jp-ja/tag/%E3%83%89%E3%83%AD%E3%82%B7%E3%83%BC%E3%83%BB%E3%83%B4%E3%82%A9%E3%83%BC%E3%83%B3/
~Wikipedia Fortran. https://web.math.pmf.unizg.hr/~nela/prteme/FORTRAN.htm
~IBM 7090 Data Processing System. https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP7090.html.
~Wikipedia IBM 7090.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_7090
~The IBM 1401 compiles and runs FORTRAN II https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFQ3sajIdaM
~Melfi, Theodore, director. Hidden Figures. 20th Century Fox, 2016.

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