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*Grace Hopper [#d7b1c20d]
&ref(https://i2.wp.com/www.naturphilosophie.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Grace_Hopper.jpg,150x200);
&ref(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Commodore_Grace_M._Hopper%2C_USN_%28covered%29.jpg,150x200);

~(left)Wikipedia
~(left)Wikipedia Grace Hopper
~(right)NaturPilosophie
~"A computer scientist and a US Navy military"
**Biography [#wc52a25f]
~born in New York, New York on December 9, 1906

~earn a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934
~started to join the U.S. Naval Reserve in 1943

~created the first compiler for computer languages in 1952

~died in Arlington, Virginia on January 1, 1992

**Works [#c0ed8a2c]
***Harvard Mark I (IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)) [#w9a14ccc]

#ref(https://ethw.org/w/images/c/ce/HarvardMark1.jpg,350x200)
ETHW
~ She worked as the first programmer of Mark I.
~ the first electromechanical computer produced in the U.S.

- designed by IBM and called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff
- the calculations about guns and rockets for the Navy
- main components: switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches
- 3 additions or subtractions in a second
- 6 seconds(multiplication) , 15.3 seconds(division), and more than a minute(logarithm and trigonometric functions)
- Harvard architecture

***bug [#g20743ec]
#ref(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8a/H96566k.jpg,400x300)
Wikipedia
Wikipedia Grace Hopper
- A story that Grace Hopper found a real bug as a bug while working on the Harvard Mark II project
- “First actual case of bug being found.” on the job diary

***UNIVAC(UNIVersal Automatic Computer) [#k82667a9]
#ref(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/UNIVAC-I-BRL61-0977.jpg,350x200)
Wikipedia
Wikipedia UNIVAC I
~the first computer for commercial use
~[[Eckert, Mauchly]]

***compiler [#mc14fa37]
~She and her team created the first compiler for computer languages.
-compiler
~a program that converts code written by a human programmer into binary code (machine code)
#ref(https://nptel.ac.in/courses/106104072/chapter_2/images/sanjeev2.gif, 350x200)
Indian Institute of Technology


-versions: A-0, A-1, A-2
-program : 
A subroutine is specified by a numeric code, and the subroutine's arguments follow the subroutine code.

***COBOL(Common Business Oriented Language) [#d290ea5e]
She continued work on compilers was integral to the development of COBOL.
- command vocabulary and syntax close to English
-An early programming language that was internationally standardized after FORTRAN 

~ process to increase the value of age by the value of years

- current programming language
 age = age + years;

-COBOL
 COMPUTE AGE = AGE + YEARS.
 ADD YEARS TO AGE.

Wikipedia COBOL


**References [#ld008a84]
~Wikipedia Grace Hopper. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper
~NaturPhilosophie AMAZING GRACE HOPPER. https://www.naturphilosophie.co.uk/amazing-grace-hopper/
~Wikipedia Software bug. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_bug
~Wikipedia Harvard Mark I. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvard_Mark_I
~ETHW Engineering and Technology History Wiki Harvard Mark I. https://ethw.org/Harvard_Mark_I
~Wikipedia UNIVAC I. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNIVAC_I
~RankRed Varun Kumar 25 Biggest Inventions in Computer Science | The History. https://www.rankred.com/biggest-inventions-in-computer-science/
~Wikipedia COBOL. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COBOL
~Indian Institute of Technology Prof. Sanjeev K Aggarwal Compiler Design Chapter 2: Introduction to compilers. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/106104072/ui/Course_home-2.htm

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